Inequality in Tuberculosis

Ortblad KF, Salomon JA, Bärnighausen T, Atun R, Stopping tuberculosis: a biosocial model for sustainable development, 2015, Lancet, Volume 386, Issue 10010, 5–11, Pages 2354-2362.

This article points out the importance of combining bio-social approach that underpins social, economic and environmental action with a bio-medical approach for ending tuberculosis.

Boccia D, Hargreaves J, De Stavola BL, et al. The Association between Household Socioeconomic Position and Prevalent Tuberculosis in Zambia: A Case-Control Study, 2011, Pai M, ed. PLoS ONE, 6(6):e20824. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0020824.

This paper analyses the association between TB prevalence and household socio-economic position and to explore the mechanism underscoring this association in Zambia and reports that household socio-economic position is an important factor in TB prevalence and the inadequate food intake is one of the major mechanism underscoring this association.

Yang W-T, Gounder CR, Akande T, et al, Barriers and Delays in Tuberculosis Diagnosis and Treatment Services: Does Gender Matter? , 2014, Tuberculosis Research and Treatment. 2014:461935, doi:10.1155/2014/461935.

This systematic review was conducted to review the gender-related barriers and delay in accessing TB treatment and reports that women experience greater barrier and longer delay in accessing TB treatment.

Thomas BE, Adinarayanan S, Manogaran C, Swaminathan S, Pulmonary tuberculosis among tribals in India: A systematic review & meta-analysis, 2015, The Indian Journal of Medical Research, 141(5):614-623. doi:10.4103/0971-5916.159545.

This systematic review was done to provide a population base estimate of TB prevalence among tribal population in India and reports pooled estimated prevalence of 703 per 100000 population with considerable heterogeneity.

Weiss MG, Auer C, Somma DB, Abouihia A, Kemp J, Jawahar MS, Karim F, Arias NL, Gender and tuberculosis: cross-site analysis and implications of a multi-country study in Bangladesh, India, Malawi, and Colombia, 2006, WHO reference number:TDR/SDR/SEB/RP/06.1.

This report addressed practical questions about the role of gender in TB and TB control in four low- to middle-income countries of Asia (Bangladesh and India), Africa (Malawi), and South America (Colombia). The study findings suggests that specific strategies for improving TB control through gender-sensitive and locally appropriate community action, clinic operations, programme monitoring, and action oriented research for TB control.

Neyrolles O, Quintana-Murci L, Sexual Inequality in Tuberculosis, 2009, Sexual Inequality in Tuberculosis. PLoS Med 6(12): e1000199. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000199

This paper discusses the biological sex-related factors that may render men more susceptible to pulmonary TB than women and recommend a multi-disciplinary team of researchers including not only microbiologists, immunologists, and human geneticists, but also epidemiologists and sociologists, should be established to unravel the many faces of sexual inequality in TB, and to decipher the delicate mechanisms involved in natural and sex-associated resistance to TB.

McDowell AJ, Troubling Breath: Tuberculosis, care and subjectivity at the margins of Rajasthan, 2014, t

This PhD thesis report examines the experience of tuberculosis sufferers in rural Rajasthan. The report shows how tuberculosis affliction and healing builds and reveals the diversity and limit of relationships between state and citizen, individual and kin, body and social, global and local, and formal and informal healthcare.

Basta PC, Marques M, Oliveira RL, Cunha EA, Resendes AP, Souza-Santos R, Social inequalities and tuberculosis: an analysis by race/color in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, 2013, Rev Saude Publica;47(5):854-64.

This paper analyse the socio-demographic inequalities in TB and the factors associated with abandoning of treatment. The paper points out that while indigenous people have higher proportion of TB incidence, poor program performance was strongly associated with abandoning treatment and death.

Rahman MH, Singh A, Socio-economic inequalities in the risk of diseases and associated risk factors in India, 2011, Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology Vol. 3(11), pp. 520-528.

Using Indian Human Development Survey (2004-05) this paper points out that 1) there are significant socio-economic inequalities in the risk of diseases in India, 2) diabetes and high blood pressure are associated with affluence, 3) no sufficient evidence to suggest that TB and mental illness are associated with poverty and 4) the risk factors likes moking, drinking, and tobacco use are concentrated more among the poorer sections of the society.

Hargreaves JR, Boccia D, Evans CA, Adato M, Petticrew M, Porter JDH, The Social Determinants of Tuberculosis: From Evidence to Action, 2011, Am J Public Health , 101(4): 654–662.