Link BG, Phelan JC, Conceptualizing Stigma, 2001: Annual Review of Sociology , Vol: 27, p363-385.

In this conceptual paper, the authors have attempted to reconstruct the stigma concept, addressing the criticisms regarding the current concept as the co-occurrence of its components namely labeling, stereotyping, separation, status loss, and discrimination and further indicate that for stigmatization to occur, power must be exercised. This re-conceptualization has implications for understanding several core issues in stigma research, ranging from the definition of the concept to the reasons stigma sometimes represents a very persistent predicament in the lives of persons affected by it.

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Link BG
Phelan JC
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Link BG, Phelan JC, Conceptualizing Stigma, 2001: Annual Review of Sociology , Vol: 27, p363-385.