Gijsbers GJ, Vrooman C, Explaining Social Exclusion, 2007, The Netherlands Institute for Social Research/scp The Hague.

This paper conceptualises social exclusion as a multidimensional concept and operationalize as a combination of material deprivation; insufficient access to social rights; a low degree of social participation; and a lack of normative integration. The paper also provides methodology for an empirical assessment of social exclusion.

Gijsbers GJ
Vrooman C