The objectives of the paper were to determine the movement and management of polio outbreaks in endemic countries and in countries with reoccurring cases of polio and to determine the effect of political instability on polio eradication. The extent of polio outbreaks was examined and modeled using statistical methodologies and mapped with GIS software and data on polio cases and immunization were collected for countries with polio cases for the period 2011 to 2014. It was found that for several reasons, Pakistan remains highly vulnerable to new incidences of polio (306 cases in 2014). Certain countries also show a steady decline of overall immunization rates. The study suggests that Polio was high in areas with increased conflict and instability and that displaced populations living in hard-to-reach areas were the most vulnerable due to lack of access to proper vaccination and health care.
Akhil L, Ahmad HA, The recent outbreaks and reemergence of poliovirus in war and conflict-affected areas, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Disease, Vol: 49, p40-46.